Vegetation of Haryana
Natural Resources – Forests
- A forest is a complex ecosystem which is predominantly composed of trees, shrubs and is usually a closed canopy.
- Forests are storehouses of a large variety of life forms such as plants, mammals, birds, insects and reptiles etc. Also the forests have abundant microorganisms and fungi, which do the important work of decomposing dead organic matter thereby enriching the soil.
- Nearly 4 billion hectares of forest cover the earth’s surface, roughly 30 percent of its total land area.
- The forest ecosystem has two components- the non-living (abiotic) and the living (biotic) component.
- Climate, soil type are part of the non-living component and the living component includes plants, animals and other life forms.
- Plants include the trees, shrubs, climbers, grasses and herbs in the forest.
- Depending on the physical, geographical, climatic and ecological factors, there are different types of forest like evergreen forest (mainly composed of evergreen tree species i.e. species having leaves all throughout the year) and deciduous forest (mainly composed of deciduous tree species i.e. species having leaf-fall during particular months of the year).
- Each forest type forms a habitat for a specific community of animals that are adapted to live in it.
- The term forest implies ‘natural vegetation’ of the area, existing from thousands of years and supporting a variety of biodiversity, forming a complex ecosystem.
- Plantation is different from natural forest as these planted species are often of same type and doesn’t support a variety of natural biodiversity.
- Forests provide various natural services and products.
- Many forest products are used in day-today life. Besides these, forests play important role in maintaining ecological balance & contributes to economy also.
Forest statics of Haryana
- Forest cover in the Haryana Sub-Region has been continuously increasing since 2001.
- During the year 2011, total forest cover of the sub-region increased to 456 sq. Kms as compared from 454 sq. km in 2009 and 440 Sq Kms. in 2005 and 354 Sq. kms in 2001.
- Considering the distribution of types of forest during 2011, Gurgaon district has highest forest cover (231 sq. km.) followed by Faridabad (93 sq. km.) and Rohtak (53 sq. km.).
- The district of Gurgaon has the highest forest cover in terms of percentage as well in the Haryana sub-region, which has successively grown from 7% in 2001 to 8.4 % in 2011.
Forest Types in Haryana
- Forest types of Haryana are Tropical Dry Deciduous in north-eastern region; Tropical Moist Deciduous in Shiwalik region; and Tropical Thorn Forests in western region.
Tropical Deciduous Forests
- These are the most widespread forests in India.
- They are also called the monsoon forests.
- They spread over regions which receive rainfall between 70-200 cm.
- On the basis of the availability of water, these forests are further divided into moist and dry deciduous.
The Moist deciduous forests of Haryana
- The Moist deciduous forests are more pronounced in the regions which record rainfall between 100-200 cm.
- These forests are found in the northeastern states along the foothills of Himalayas Shiwalik region.
- Teak, sal, shisham, hurra, mahua, amla, semul, kusum, and sandalwood etc. are the main species of these forests.
Dry deciduous forest of Haryana
- Dry deciduous forest covers vast areas of the country, where rainfall ranges between 70 -100 cm. On the wetter margins, it has a transition to the moist deciduous, while on the drier margins to thorn forests.
- These forests are found in rainier areas of north-eastern region of Haryana.
- As the dry season begins, the trees shed their leaves completely and the forest appears like a vast grassland with naked trees all around.
- Tendu, palas, amaltas, bel, khair, axlewood, etc. are the common trees of these forests.
Tropical Thorn Forests
- Tropical thorn forests occur in the areas which receive rainfall less than 50 cm. These consist of a variety of grasses and shrubs.
- It includes semi-arid areas of western region of Haryana.
- In these forests, plants remain leafless for most part of the year and give an expression of scrub vegetation.
- Important species found are babool, ber, and wild date palm, khair, neem, khejri, palas, etc. Tussocky grass grows upto a height of 2 m as the under growth.
Haryana State’s Emblems
State Tree – Pipal, Peepul or Bo tree (Ficus religiosa)
- Pipal tree (Ficus religiosa), a native tree of India, has been declared state tree of Haryana.
- All parts of the Pipal tree, including roots, bark, leaf and fruit, are useful. The botanical classification of the Pipal tree is:
- Description of the Plant: Large tree, Flower color-red. Flowers in February. Fruits in May / June. Widely found in uplands and plain area.
- Plant parts used: Root / Bark / Leaf / Fruit.
- Medicinal uses: The bark of the tree is useful in inflammations and glandular swelling of the neck. It’s root bark is useful for stomatitis, cleans ulcers, and promotes granulations. Its roots are also good for gout. The roots are even chewed to prevent gum diseases. Its fruit is laxative which promotes digestion and checks vomiting. Its ripe fruits are good for the foul taste, thirst and heart diseases. The powered fruit is taken for Asthma. Its seeds have proved useful in urinary troubles. The leaves are used to treat constipation.
State Flower – Lotus
- The Lotus or the Water Lily is an aquatic plant with broad floating green leaves and bright fragrant flowers that grow only in shallow waters.
- Based on the color of its flower, it is divided into two types, the red lotus flower and the white lotus flower.
- The beautiful flowers float and have many petals overlapping in a symmetrical pattern.
- Lotuses, prized for their serene beauty, are delightful to behold as their blossoms open on the surface of a pond.
State Animal – Black Buck (Antelope)
- Black Buck, common name for an antelope, mainly is a resident of India but with other small populations in Pakistan and Nepal.
- The Black Buck has ringed horns that have a moderate spiral twist of three to four turns and are up to 70 cm (28 inch) long.
- The name Black Buck has also been applied to the sable antelope of Africa.
- The adult male stands about 80 cm (about 32 inch) at the shoulder and weighs 32 to 43 kg (71 to 95 lb). The body’s upper parts are black; the underparts and a ring around the eyes are white. The light-brown female is usually hornless. Males are dark brown.
State Bird – Black Francolin
- Black Francolin (Francolinus francolinus), sometimes known as Black Partridge, is a widespread breeding resident in most of north and central India. Called Kala Teetar in Hindi, this handsome stub-tailed game bird is found near cultivation and scrub, bordering wetlands. Black Francolin prefers crops, grass and bushes, tall enough to offer shelter and open beneath to provide easy escape on ground. It is more closely associated with water than the Grey Francolin.
- The male Black Francolin is black with white patch on the cheek, a chestnut collar and white spots on the flanks.
- The back and wings are scalloped with shades of golden brown with sub-terminal tawny-buff bands and pale edges. Tail is black with narrow white bars. Legs are reddish-brown to red.
- The female Black Francolin similar to the male, but is paler, with wider brown bars on the lower back, the white cheek patch is missing and the chestnut collar replaced by a nuchal patch.
- Food consists mainly of grain, grass seeds, fallen berries, shoots, tubers, termites, ants and insects.
Herbal Parks and Herbal Gyan Kendras in haryana
- Herbal Parks and Herbal Gyan Kendras have been set up in each district to educate people about the traditional Indian system of medicine for generating awareness, preserving gene pool and production of quality seeds and seedlings for distribution to farmers.
- Farmers are also being encouraged for ex-situ cultivation and propagation of medicinal plants to save the natural biodiversity and Income Generation.
- These herbal Parks will help in conservation of species and also serve as gene-pool both for indigenous & exotic species.
- This endeavour of Haryana Forest Department has been appreciated by the public, practitioners and policy maker.
The State Medicinal Plants Board
- The State Medicinal Plants Board is required to promote the medicinal plants sector in the State through implementation of Promotional Projects / Schemes and the Contractual Farming Projects, sanctioned and financed by the National Medicinal Plants Board.
- The Promotional projects aim at survey and inventorisation of medicinal plants, In-situ conservation / cultivation of medicinal plants including setting up of Herbal Parks, Production of quality planting material in nurseries, extension activities for raising awareness through Audio Visual Aids, Seminars, Training / Workshops etc. for growers and the personnel engaged in promoting the medicinal plants sector, Study of demand and supply position and marketing of medicinal plants, Research and Development in the Sector, Value addition and semi processing of products of medicinal plants, to promote cooperative efforts among growers and collectors of medicinal plants and cultivation of medicinal plants on contract basis in the farm lands for which subsidy is provided by the National Medicinal Plants Board to the extent of 30% of the total project cost
Haryana Community Forestry Project (HCFP)
- Haryana Community Forestry Project (HCFP), co-funded by the Government of Haryana and the European Commission, was implemented in 338 villages in 11 districts of Haryana with the objective of conserving and rejuvenating natural resources, mainly through forestry development, with the active participation of communities, especially women.
- The purpose of this website is for the project to share its experience as demonstrated through various manuals, study reports, publications and videos. We invite any interested party involved in similar work to download these documents and, hopefully, gain further insights from them in their work.
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