Scarcity of water, methods of conservation-rain water harvesting and watershed management, ground water management

  Scarcity of water   Water scarcity is possibly to pose the greatest challenge on account of its increased demand coupled with shrinking supplies due to over utilisation and pollution. Water is a cyclic resource with abundant supplies on the globe. Approximately, 71 per cent of the earth’s surface is covered with it but fresh … Read more

Geological and Physiographic divisions of India

Three Geological divisions: The peninsular block The Himalayas and other Peninsular Mountains Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain   Peninsualar block is made of gneisses (metamorphic) and granites (igneous). Six physiographic divisions: The Northern and North-eastern Mountains The Northern Plain The Peninsular Plateau The Indian Desert The Coastal Plains The Islands Northern and North-Eastern Mountains Approximate length of the … Read more

Indian monsoon, mechanism, onset and retreat

  The word “monsoon” comes from the Arabic word mausim, meaning season.Monsoons refer to a system of winds in the tropical regions under which the direction of winds is reversed completely between the summer and the winter seasons. Under this system, the winds blow from land to sea in winter and from sea to land … Read more

Population growth, distribution and density

  India is the second most populous country in the world next only to China. On March 1, 2011 the total population of India was at 1.247 billion. This accounted for 17.5% of the world’s total population. In other words, about every sixth person in the world there is an Indian. China, the most populous country … Read more

Agricultural Crops of India

  Crop State Prod Prod Yield Rainfall Temp Soil % (Mil Kg/Ha cm Deg C T) Rice W. Bengal 15 87 1900 125-200 cm >23 C Deep Fertile UP 14 Clayey or loamy Andhra Pr 13 soil Punjab 11 Wheat UP 35 74 2700 80 cm 10-25 C Light loam   Punjab 20 Sandy Loam … Read more

Landforms

Three Geological divisions: The peninsular block The Himalayas and other Peninsular Mountains Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain   Peninsualar block is made of gneisses (metamorphic) and granites (igneous). Six physiographic divisions: The Northern and North-eastern Mountains The Northern Plain The Peninsular Plateau The Indian Desert The Coastal Plains The Islands Northern and North-Eastern Mountains Approximate length of the … Read more

Mineral Resources of India

    50. Iron Ore Chhattisgarh 24 % Dalli, Rajhra (Durg), Bailadila, Raoghat, Aridongri 51.   Goa (21%) Sanquelim, Sanguem, Quepem, Satari, Ponda, Bicholim 52.   Karnataka (20%) Bellary, Hospet, Sandur 53.   Jharkhand (17 %) Noamund, Gua 54.   Orissa (15 %) Gurumahisani, Sulaipat, Badampahar (Mayurbhanj),       Kiriburu, Meghahataburu, Bonai (Sundargarh). 55. … Read more

Drainage System of India

Drainage: Flow of water through well-defined channels. Network of such channels is called a drainage system . Drainage basin: An area drained by a river and its tributaries. Watershed: Boundary line separating one drainage basin from other. River basins are larger watersheds. Drainage pattern of an area depends on the geological time period, nature and … Read more

Environment and Ecological Issues

ECOLOGY   Ecology is  defined “as a scientific study of the relationship of the living organisms with each other and with their environment.” The classical texts of the Vedic period such as the Vedas, the Samhitas, the Brahmanas and the Aranyakas-Upanishads contain many references to ecological concepts .The Indian treatise on medicine, the Caraka- Samhita … Read more

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