New dimensions of public management

New dimensions of public management NPM is a label that captures a range of reforms inspired by the idea that private sector management techniques and market mechanisms increase public sector efficiency. NPM type reforms include, for example, quantification, the introduction of performance management systems, the increase in the responsibility of public administrators, the introduction of … Read more


Federalism Federalism, mode of political organization that unites separate states or other polities within an overarching political system in a way that allows each to maintain its own integrity. Federal systems do this by requiring that basic policies be made and implemented through negotiation in some form, so that all the members can share in … Read more

Constitution of India: Foundation, characteristics

Constitution of India: Foundation, characteristics Foundation of constitution Constitution is a legal document having a special legal sanctity, which sets out the framework and the principal functions of the organs of the government of a state, and declares the principles governing the operation of those organs. The Indian Constitution is based on the philosophy of … Read more

Objectives of Indian Constitution

Objectives of Indian Constitution Sovereignty By declaring us as a sovereign entity, Preamble emphasizes complete political freedom. It implies that our state is internally powerful and externally free. She is free to determine for herself without any external interference. There is none within her to challenge her authority. Only this attribute of sovereignty has made … Read more

Principles of Public Administration

Principles of Public Administration Throughout the 20th century the study and practice of public administration has been essentially pragmatic and normative rather than theoretical and value free. This may explain why public administration, unlike some social sciences, developed without much concern about an encompassing theory. Not until the mid-20th century and the dissemination of the … Read more

National Commission for Backward Classes

National Commission for Backward Classes The NCBC is a body set up under the National Commission for Backward Classes Act, 1993. It has the power to examine complaints regarding inclusion or exclusion of groups within the list of backward classes, and advise the central government in this regard. Composition of the commission Commission will consist … Read more

Old Age Acts

Old Age Acts Hindus Laws Amongst the Hindus, the obligation of sons to maintain their aged parents, who were not able to maintain themselves out of their own earning and property, was recognized even in early texts. And this obligation was not dependent upon, or in any way qualified, by a reference to the possession … Read more

Development Of Hindi And Urdu Language

     Development of Hindi and Urdu Language   Hindi and Urdu are two Hindustani Languages; spoken mostly in the northern and Central India and in Pakistan. Hindi and Urdu are two different languages but these languages have many common things. Both Hindi and Urdu are developed in a similar phase and adopted … Read more

Measuring Corruption

                      MEASURING CORRUPTION Due to its nature, the scale of corruption is impossible to measure with complete accuracy. But there are informed estimates available, and Transparency International regularly publishes a number of assessments, surveys and indices which measure corruption:   CORRUPTION PERCEPTIONS INDEX TI’s Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) is the best known of … Read more

The Protection Of Human Rights Act

 The Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993 The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) mooted the idea 01 the creation of an impartial institution for the protection of human rigfits in the States as early as 1946. In pursuance of the resolution of the General Assembly adopted in 1966,’ the Economic … Read more

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