Soils of Haryana

Soils of Haryana

An overview of Haryana Soil

  • Soil in Haryana is formed almost entirely of alluvium.
  • The state is situated towards the depressions of the rivers Ganges and Indus.
  • Haryana State is a broad level plain standing nearly on the watershed between the basins of the two rivers.
  • Haryana state is a vast ground of moist land.
  • In the whole of the region except the flood plains of the Yamuna and the Ghaggar, the alluvium is of the old type containing sand, clay, silt and hard calcareous concentrations about the size of nuts known as ‘Kankars’.
  • In the Khaddar the deposits of the alluvium are the recent type.
  • They consist of coarse sand and some silt regularly deposited by the rivers and small mountain streams of the Indo-Gangetic watershed.
  • In the south-western part, a great deal of wind-blown sand has been piled up in the form of sand dunes.
    Soils of Haryana
    Nitrogen : 89.27% 7.98% 2.75% Phosphorus : 88.28% 9.45% 2.26% Potash : 10.61% 48.55% 40.84% Sulphur : 8.32% Deficient. Micronutrients:- Zinc : 19.70% deficient. Iron : 28.20% deficient. Manganese : 8.90% deficient.
  • These dunes are sometimes many metres high and extend many kilometers in length.
  • The alluvium is covered by sand, making the region as arid and unproductive as a desert.
  • The only parts useful for cultivation in this region are Tals, where due to some reason or the other sand does not collect.

Analysis of Soil District Wise

  • Soil constitutes the most precious natural resource of the State.
  • A variety of soils are found in Haryana due to the marked variation in the physiographic and climatic conditions.
  • The soil fertility and it reflects that major parts of Panipat, Sonipat, Palwal, north eastern part of Jhajjar and parts of Faridabad district fall under medium fertility zone; eastern part of Panipat, Sonipat, Faridabad and Palwal district lie under low to medium fertility zone; district Rohtak, Jhajjar & central upper part of Gurgaon lie in low fertility zone and rest of the areas are under poor fertility zone, especially parts of Rewari, Mewat, southern part of Gurgaon and western part of Palwal & Faridabad.
  • Soil of the Haryana Sub-Region have been classified and described under the following major soil types :
  1. Typic Ustochrepts : Soil of old alluvial plains
  2. Typic Ustipsamments : Soil of Aravali plains
  3. Typic Ustifluvents : Soil of recent alluvial plains and flood plains
  4. Typic Torripsamments : Soil of Aeofluvial plains
  5. Rocky Outcrops : Aravali rocky hills

The district wise details of soil characteristics are described below.

Soil in Panipat District of Haryana

  • The soils are well drained, Sandy loam to clay loam/silty clay loam in plains and loam to clay loam/ silty/ loose clay loam in relic channels/depressions/basins.

Soil in Sonipat District of Haryana

  • The district comprises of recent flood plains, young meander plains, old meander plains and old alluvial plains.
  • Recent flood plains occur along the Yamuna River and clearly show fluvial features.
  • The soils are loamy sand to sandy loam on the surface and sandy loam to clay loam in the sub surface.

Soil in Rohtak District of Haryana

  • The district mainly comprises of old alluvial plains.
  • The soils are loamy sand to sandy loam on the surface and sandy loam to clay loam in the sub surface.
  • Old meander plains are almost flat with loamy sand to silty clay loam soils.
  • Oldest among all the land forms are old alluvial plains, which cover major areas in the district.
  • These soils are sand to loamy sand/sandy loam (surface) to silt loam/silty clay loam (subsurface).

Soil in Jhajjar District of Haryana

  • The district mainly comprises of old alluvial plains and some parts of the district also have soil belonging to Aravali plains.

Soil in Rewari District of Haryana

  • The soils of the district fall under Entisols and Inceptisols orders. The surface soil texture varies from sand to fine loamy sand.

Soil in Gurgaon District of Haryana

  • The district comprises of sand dunes, sandy plains, alluvial plains, salt affected areas, low lands, lakes, hills and pediments.
  • The soil varies from sand to loamy sand in sand dunes and sandy plain areas, sandy loam to clay loam / silty clay loam in alluvial plains, calcareous, loamy sand to loam in salt affected plains, silty loam to loam in low lands and calcareous, loamy sand to loam in hills.

Soil in Mewat District of Haryana

  • The soils of the area are generally sandy loam to loam.
  • In parts of the low-lying areas, they are clayey and saline.
  • The upper hills are mostly barren.

Soil in Faridabad and Palwal District of Haryana

  • The district comprises of recent Yamuna flood plains, low lying plains, depressions, sand dunes and hills.
  • The texture of the soil is sand to loamy sand in recent Yamuna flood plains, sandy loam in plains, sandy loam to clay loam in alluvial plains, sandy loam to loam (surface), clay loam/silty clay (sub-surface) in low lying plains and depressions.

Agriculture in Haryana based on Soil Types

  • Haryana Sub-Region’s predominant land use is agriculture.
  • There are two main cropping seasons, namely Kharif and Rabi.
  • Majority of the area is utilized for agriculture during Rabi and Kharif (double crop) season due to better irrigation facilities in the region; major kharif crops include rice, jowar, bajra, gaur, maize, cotton, sugarcane, groundnut and pulses.
  • Rabi crops include wheat, barley, gram rapeseed/mustard and pulses.
  • The short period available between mid-May and July is sometimes also used for raising a third crop particularly in the areas where irrigation facility is available.
  • Northern portion of the region is characterized by good agricultural area due to alluvial soils, marginal to good quality of ground water, network of irrigation, i.e canals, tube wells and relatively better natural drainage.
  • Southern parts of the sub-region containing Gurgaon and Rewari, due to lack of rain, poor irrigation facilities, poor Ground water quality coupled with desert terrain, is under relatively less cultivated area in the Kharif season.
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