Migration of Haryana
Migration and urbanization
- The process of urbanization is closely connected with internal migration. Historically, the latter has been a significant factor in the growth of urban areas and is credited with initiating, and bolstering up the process of urbanization.
- Urban population may increase due to natural increase, migration and administrative reclassification of urban areas, with the first two being of great importance. In general, the relative contribution of migration and natural increase to urban growth varies with the level of urbanization.
- At an early stage of development, when levels of urbanization are low and rates of both urban and rural natural increase are moderately high, net migration generally contributes more to urban population growth than natural increase.
- Haryana has had a relatively slow but stable rate of growth in its urban population to total population.
- The decadal Percentage variation of urban population in Haryana was -21.7 during 1901-11 and +7.0 during 1911-21. After that, it has continuously increased. During 1941-51, the urbanization contours of Haryana were shaped by the rehabilitation of displaced persons from 124 Pakistan at the time of partition in 1947 which changed the population composition.
- During 1971-81, a sharp increase in urban population growth rate is noticed during its formation as a separate state in 1966 and building up of massive infrastructure such as connectivity, 100 per cent electrification, metalled roads linking various settlements.
- The 1981-91 decade accounted for an increase of 43.4 per cent in urban population, but this proportion is less than 59.5 per cent of 197,1 -81 decade.
- The increased number of towns in 1991 significantly contributed to growth of urban population in the state.
- The agricultural and industrial developments in Haryana territory, the settlement of displaced persons in towns located in its eastern belt, constitution of the National Capital Region (NCR) around Delhi which covers almost one-third of the whole state, the emergence of new urban-industrial estates are some factors which contributed positively in the increase of urban population.
- Among the districts having nearly one-third urban in-migrants are Yamunanagar, Panipat, Kurukshetra, Sonipat, Rohtak, Gurgaon, Jind, Hisar and Sirsa districts. These are the districts with high industrialization, agriculture colonization along Bhakra canal and having educational centers.
- The districts, which have less proportion of urban in-migrants are Kaithal, Rewari, Mahendragarh and Bhiwani.
- The impressive gains in urbanization in few selected pockets have given rise to regional disparity.
- The male migrants have also followed the same pattern of total urban in-migrants.
- As far as females are concerned, their proportion is high in almost all districts, which is largely marriage migration
- Marriage is the major cause of migration accounting for nearly two-third (64.8 per cent) of the total migration followed by family movement (16.1 per cent) and employment (8.6 per cent). Rural and urban areas differ from each other.
- About four- fifth of the migration is due to marriage in rural areas. In the urban areas, marriage accounts for 36.3 per cent ofthe total migration.
- Family movement is also considerable (31.2 per cent).
- Employment’is another major reason of migration (17.8 per cent). Other factors are less significant for movement of people.
Reasons for migration to class-1 cities
- In Haryana, the main factor for movement to cities is the movement of family accounting for 32.7 per cent ofthe total Males and females have contributed almost equally.
- The next factor, not less important than family movement is marriage. This factor gains greater strength in the case of female migrants accounting for 56.4 per cent while males have only 0.8 per cent.
- Employment as a factor of migration accounts for 21.5 per cent. Migration for employment is mainly male migration, males contributing 42.5 per cent and females only 3.6 per cent.
- It has also lowest co-efficient of spatial disparity (39.4 per cent).
- The high co-efficient of spatial disparity in all other reasons is explained in terms of various facilities provided by different cities.
- Similarly, spatial disparity is lowest in marriage migration within the state, inter-district (34.6 per cent)
Male migration in urban areas
- Migration plays significant role in urban growth. Towns and cities are the new centres of economic activities where migration occurs due to undergoing industrialization, trade, transport and construction activities and other informal sector activities.
- They have capacity to provide employment opportunities and attract population from rural areas addition to this; there is movement between urban areas, which indicates the circulation of population among them according to the degree oftheir pull and their capacity to absorb migrants.
- In order to understand this phenomenon, it is necessary to examine the role oftotal migrants in urban population, as well as their break up into rural-urban migrants and urban migrants.
- Though, generally all male migration is in search of better economic opportunities, rural-urban flow has special significance as it represents the shift away from agriculture.
- Rural- urban flow is distinctly male selective in contrast to migration within rural areas which is dominated by females.
- The peculiar economic base of urban places in the state still continuing prejudice (though gradually declining) against female employment and mobility, residential problems in towns and persistence of the joint family system in rural areas account for the excess of males among the rural-urban migrants
Urban -urban flow
- This flow indicates urban turnover. Rural migrants, migrating to cities and towns in search of employment, if not absorbed in one city or town move to other.
- Sometimes, even those who are absorbed, after sometime, migrate from small town to large cities for bettering their prospects.
- Nearly two-fifth (2.8 hundred thousand) of total migrants in urban male population has moved from urban areas to urban areas.
- The percentage of urban-urban migrants is higher i.e. more than three-fifth in Ambala, while in Yamunanagar, Kurukshetra, Karnal, Faridabad, Gurgaon and Sirsa districts, it ranges between 40-50 per cent.
- The remaining districts like Panipat, Kaithal, Rewari, and Hisar have nearly one-third of migrants in urban male population coming from urban areas.
- The rest are in lowest category ranging between 20-30 per cent. It means that as in case ofrural-urban flow, here we do not find uniform pattern.
- Out of 4.2 hundred thousand male migrants in rural population, more than four-fifth of these migrants are rural-rural migrants.
- Spatially, rural-rural migration is more significant in all districts. More than 75 per cent of migrants in these districts have migrated from rural areas Rohtak district runs first with 92.7 per cent. Rural-rural flow is mostly within the state, intra-district flow, Nearly three-fifth of the total rural-rural migration is within the state.
- In Sonipat and Sirsa districts, people have migrated from rural areas of other states also. There is more intra-district rural-rural male migrants than inter-district.
Migration to rural areas
- In states that are primarily agrarian, Movement of people may take place from one rural or urban area to another.
- For instance, in Haryana, redistributed tendencies have been observed with regard to rural population in response to the changing pattern of employment potential of different areas.
- Generally, such a migration originates from crowded areas of low agricultural productivity and is directed towards sparsely populated areas with new developmental activities, particularly in the field of agriculture, mining and plantation.
- Urban to rural migration is relatively less common compared to others.
- Such a movement takes place at the advanced stage of urbanization, as it is generated by over congestion
- Lifetime urban in-migrants are typical of urban-industrial centres ofthe state viz. Ambala, Faridabad. In 1991, the high disparity (77.7 per cent) in spatial pattern of urban in-migrants indicates that urban inmigrants are not ubiquitous.
- They are more focussed towards certain areas which are industrial in nature.
- The urban in-migrants are mainly attracted towards the eastern parts along Grand Trunk Road, noted for industrial and agricultural development including Kurukshetra, Panipat, Yamunanagar, Sonipat, northwest parts including Hisar and Sirsa districts.
- Females outnumber the males among such migrants, signifying the role of marriage. It is evident that female migration exceeds male migration in both rural as well as urban areas of the state. Female migration is largely marriage migration.
- Education and employment are not the factors attracting females more.
- Towards class-I cities, family 143 movement and marriage are the prime cause for migration. In these cities, factor of employment gains greater strength in case of males while marriage in case of females.
- Male migration is in search of better economic opportunities; particularly in rural direction of this flow indicates the extent of rural exodus and attractiveness of urban centres in different districts of the state.
- The proportion of male migrants in urban population in the districts coming from either rural or urban area shows that the districts viz. Jind, Kaithal, Sonipat and Rohtak have migrants mainly from rural areas while the districts of Ambala Yamunanagar, Kurukshetra, Gurgaon, Faridabad, Karnal have from urban areas.
- Some towns, which may be providing educational facilities, have attracted migrants from near by rural areas, largely within the district only.
- On the other hand, the towns lying along national Highway have attracted migrants from urban areas. As far as rural in-migrants are concerned, there is low spatial disparity found in lifetime (33.3 per cent) migrants as compared to urban in-migrants.
- The flows were directed towards Kaithal, Ambala, Panipat, Rewari, Mahendargarh, Hisar, Sirsa districts. The migrants to rural areas have their destination towards the districts noted for agricultural development i.e. Sirsa and Hisar districts in northwest, Kurukshetra and Kaithal districts in northeast and central; and Rewari. Mahendragarh in southern districts.
- The northwest parts are major cotton producers of the state. The northeastern and central parts are noted for rice cultivation.
- The tract is also called ‘Rice Bowl of Haryana’. With the onset of green revolution in mid sixties, Haryana has witnessed a transformation of the traditional, largely subsistence 144 agriculture into a modern commercial one.
- This is attributed primarily to the extension and intensification of agricultural infrastructure base which has declined to some extent, regional disparities in the provision of agricultural infrastructure led to stabilize people here.
- Since males are migrating largely for economic reasons, only 6 per cent of the male population in rural area is migrants.
- This is not uniform varying from 15.5. per cent in Sirsa to 2.8 per cent in Jind district. This type of migration is towards the areas which are either agricultural or where industries are set-up in rural areas of the district.
- More than four-fifth of the migrants to rural areas had come from rural areas, mostly within the state.
- Therefore, it is very well said that urban in-migrants are the features of urbanized districts while rural in-migrants are of agricultural developed districts.
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