Rajasthan: Worker and Peasant Movements

Rajasthan: Worker and Peasant Movements


  1. Bijoliya Farmer Movement (1918)


  • The first organized, comprehensive, broad, non-violent and longest running peasant movement in the country (about 44 years)
  • Reason – Excessive levy and unfair means
  • Dhakad caste movement in Bijolia hideout
  • The locator at the time of agitation – Rao Krishna Singh
  • Mewar Maharana at the time of agitation -Fateh Singh
  • During Rao Krishna Singh, people of Bijolia used to spend 84 types of taxes.
  • Father of the peasant movement in the country
  • Early leadership – Sadhu Sitaram Das
  • Ancient name-Vijayavalli (a village)
  • Part of the Uparmal principality
  • Rana Saka gifted this manor to his servant Ashok Parmar (founder of Bijolia).


  • In 1897,All the farmers gathered in Bhijolia’s Girirdhpura village on the occasion of the feast of the father of Ganga Ram Dhakar.Then collectively it was decided to send Nanaji Patel and Thakri Patel to Mewar Maharana to complain of Krishna Singh. Later Krishan Singh expelled both of them from Bijolia.


  • In 1903, Rao Krishna Singh imposed a new tax on people of Bijolia named Chanwari (a type of marital tax of Rs 5).


  • Farmers protested against it and refused to plough on Thakur’s land. Dreadful, Krishna Singh withdrew this tax.


  • Rao Krishna Singh died in 1906.


  • In 1906, Thakur Prithvi Singh became a new zamindar, which in 1906 introduced the new tax called “Talwar Bandhai” (a kind successor tax, and was also called insulting tax) on the people of Bijolia in 1906.

Rajasthan: Worker and Peasant Movements

  • The farmers opposed it in the leadership of Sadhu Sitaram Das, Fatehcharan Charan and Brahmadev, but it was suppressed.


  • After the First World War (1914-19 18), the war contribution was imposed on the people of Bijolia , which was strongly opposed. Due to mounting opposition, the Mewar government formed the “Bindulal Bhattacharya Commission” to investigate war money. The Mewar government refused to accept the recommendations of this commission.




  • Birth – Bulandshahr (Uttar Pradesh)
  • Real name – Bhoop singh


  • He formed a revolutionary organization “Veer Bharat Sabha” in collaboration with Gopal Singh Kharva and during the World War I, in the Northern India, planned an armed revolution against the British. But after the plan was exposed, both were imprisoned in the Toadarg jail. Bhupsinh escaped from there and reached Nathdwara. This was the first time that people got the introduction of Vijay Singh teacher (pathak), but Sadhu Sitaram Das identified him and brought him to Bijolia.



  • Vijay Singh Pathik and Haribhai Kinkar established Vidya Pradvani Sabha in Chittaurgarh in 1914.


  • In 1916 Vijay Singh Pathik started the leadership of Bijolia Kisan movement on the insistence of Sadhu Sitaram.



  • In 1917, Vijay Singh Pathik established the Uparmal Kisan Punch Board in Bijollia. Its first president / sarpanch was Mr. Manna Patel. The Marwar Seva sangh was its associate organization.


  • In 1919 Vijay Singh Pathik established the Rajasthan Seva Sangh (the credit for creating the highest political awakening in Rajasthan) in Wardha. In 1920, Vijay Singh Pathik transferred the headquarters of the Rajasthan Seva sangh to Ajmer.


  • On 4th February, 1922, AGG Robert Holland of Rajasthan came to Bijaulia on the agitation. He made an agreement between the Zamidars and the farmers. But this agreement has not been effective for a long time. So the movement re-flashed.


  • During the movement, Vijay Singh Pathik published the following newspapers to bring awareness about the movement.
  1. Publication of Rajasthan Kesari from Wardha (Maharashtra) in 1920.
  2. New Rajasthan published from Ajmer in 1922.
  3. Tarun Rajasthan published from Ajmer in 1923.
  4. Pratap was published from Kanpur in 1924. (Editor – Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi)
  • During the Bijaulia Kisan movement, ‘Pratap’ was the most important newspaper of  Vijay SinghPathik. In this letter, Bikaner opposed the practice of prostitution.


  •  In 1927 Vijay Singh Pathak got separated from the Bijaulia Kisan movement.


  • After moving  of Vijay Singh Pathak, command  of the Bijaulia Kisan movement was led by Manikya Lal Verma, Jamnalal Bajaj, Haribhau Upadhyay (Da Saheb), Manikya Lal Verma.


  • Manikya Lal Verma led the final phase. His wife Narayani Devi Verma led the women during the agitation.


  • Seeing the growing movement, Mewar’s Prime Minister T. S. Vijayaraghavachari entrusted Bijolia’s case to Mohan Singh Mehta. Mohan Singh Mehta came to  He accepted the demands of the farmers and the agitation ended.


  • “Yash Sukh Vaibhav ki Chah nahi, Parwah nahi jivan rahe na rahe !


Iccha hai jo bas yah hai ye Swechachar daman na rahe!”


This is a poem composed by Vijaysinh Pathik


  • Vijay Singh Pathak is considered the father of the farmers movement in the country.


  • Tulsi Bhil – Worked as a message carrier walking 70 miles per day.



  1. Bengu Kisan movement – (started in 1921)


  • The main centre of the peasant movement of Bengu was Raita.


  • Earlier,this place was in Bhilwara, but it is currently in Chittorgarh district.
  • This movement ran at the time of Bangngu’s Zamidar Anoop singh.
  • Maharana of Mewar was Fateh Singh .
  • Reason – Excessive levy and unfair means.
  • This movement was run by the farmers of Dhakar caste.


  • The initial leadership of this movement was done by Vijay Singh Pathik from Ajmer because there was a ban upon him on arrival in Mewar state. Later, on the insistence of Vijay Singh Pathak, Ram Narayan Chaudhary led the movement.


  • On the agitation, Thakur Anoop singh entered into an agreement with the farmers, but the British government refused to accept it, by naming it Bolshevik agreement and formed the Trench Commission on its level for the investigation of the case of Bengu, Who did not make a decision in the interest of the farmers.


  • Farmers organized a Kisan Sabha in Govindpura village on July 13, 1923 to protest the recommendations of the Trench Commission. Trench ordered firing on this assembly, in which many farmers including Rupa Gha Dhakar and Kripa Dhakar were martyred. This incident is called Govindpura massacre.


  • After this incident, Vijay Singh Pathik took over the leadership, but on September 10, 1923 the British arrested him, but the movement continued under the leadership of Ramnarayan Chaudhary.


  • Finally, in 1925 the demands of the farmers of Bengu were accepted.



  1. Neemuchana Farmer Movement 1924-25


  • Extensively Writing by Pratap, New Rajasthan
  • This movement was taken during the reign of Maharaja Jai Singh of Alwar.
  • Reason – Increase in the fine rates
  • Current situation – Nemuchana is in Alwar district.


  • On 14th May, 1925, farmers of Alwar organized a Kisan Sabha in Nimuchana village of Alwar to protest against the increase of fines. The royal army of Alwar fired on this gathering, in which about 800 farmers were killed. This incident is called the Neemuchana massacre.


  • Finally, on November 18, 1925, the fine rates was reversed.


  • Ramnarayan Chaudhary firstly described the incident as a nemuchana murder case.


  • The news paper named ‘Riyasat’, for the first time, compared this incident to Jallianwala Bagh massacre.


  • Gandhiji described this massacre as more than the Jallianwala Bagh massacre and criticized it as the second dyershai.


  • The Nemuchana massacre is called ‘Jalianwala Bagh Massacre’ of Rajasthan.



  1. Bundi Farmer Movement


  • Started in April, 1922
  • Reason – Excessive levy and rent
  • Leadership – Pandit Nayanuram Sharma

On April 2, 1923, farmers of Bundi organized a Kisan Sabha in Dabi village of Bundi under the leadership of Nayanuram Sharma. Nanak Bhil was martyred while singing flag songs with many farmers in the shootout on this meeting. Sharma ji was arrested and the agitation ended.


  1. Alwar Farmer movement 1924 (ending due to British intervention)


  • Communal riots spread during this movement.


  • This movement took place at the time of Maharaja Jai Singh.


  • Reason: The ban on killing wild boar. Later this ban was lifted.



  1. Meo Farmer movement 1932 – 33


  • This movement was run by the farmers of Meo caste of Alwar.


  • Cause – excessive levy


  • Leadership-led by Mohabbat Ali


  • Later the demands of the farmers were accepted.


  • Note: In May 1933, the Meo farmers of Bharatpur also carried out the agitation, but it was suppressed.


  1. Shekhawati Farmer Movement – 1933 – 34


  • Surname – Zakat movement


  • Reason – An increase in levy by the factories of the Shekhawati area.


  • Tilak Seva Samiti was established in the first phase of this movement.


  • Leadership – Harlal Chaudhary


  • During this movement, in April 1934, under the leadership of Harilal Chaudhary’s wife Kishori Devi, in the Katrathal village of Sikar, there were 10,000 Jat women.


  • In 1924, the ‘Jatavir’ weekly was published from Agra. The news of the Shekhawati peasant movement was published in this.


  • Devi Bakhsh declares civil rights in Mandwa hideouts under the Shekhawati-peasant-movement.



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