. In March 1931, a special session of the Congress was held at Karachi to endorse the Gandhi-Irwin Pact. Six days before the session (which was held on March 29) Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru were executed. Throughout Gandhi’s route to Karachi, he was greeted with black flag demonstrations by the Punjab Naujawan Bharat Sabha, in protest against his failure to secure commutation of the death sentence for Bhagat and his comrades.
While disapproving of and dissociating itself from political violence, the Congress admired the ‘bravery’ and ‘sacrifice’ of the three martyrs.
- The Delhi Pact or Gandhi-Irwin Pact was endorsed.
- The goal of purna swaraj was reiterated.
- Two resolutions were adopted—one on Fundamental Rights and the other on National Economic Programme— which made the session particularly memorable. The Resolution on Fundamental Rights guaranteed: free speech and free press and right to form associations.
The Resolution on National Economic Programme included:
- Substantial reduction in rent and revenue in the case of landholders and peasants
- Exemption from rent for uneconomic holdings
- Relief from agricultural indebtedness
- Control of usury
- Better conditions of work including a living wage, limited hours of work and protection of women workers in the industrial sector
- Right to workers and peasants to form unions
- State ownership and control of key industries, mines and means of transport
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