Immunity and Vaccination for Ras/RTS Mains Exam

Immunity is disease resistance and is of following two types:-

  1. Natural or Innate Immunity:- It is present from birth and is inherited from birth by the offspring from the mother.In this form of immunity the response from the organism against the pathogen is immediate in the form of non-specific immune response without the need of recognizing the pathogens.
  2. Acquired or Adaptive Immunity:- It is non- Inherited and is acquired as an enhanced response to a disease during the lifetime of an organism. It takes time to develop and can be more effective in the next encounter with the said Pathogen.The Process of adaptive immunity is the basis of vaccination.


Vaccination or immunization:-

  • Vaccination or immunization is based on the property of the memory of the immune system. In vaccination an inactivated on weaknd pathogen is introduced into the body. Vaccine helps in generating the primary immune response whereby immunological memory is established in the body. Vaccine generate memory cell that quickly identifies the pathogen on subsequent exposure and produces a robust secondary immunity response quickly including mass production of antibodies during the actual infection of pathogen.
  • Immune memory formation of antibodies occur on 1st exposure to a specific antigen and secondary response occur after the second exposure to the same antigen. It began very quickly.

Active immunity :-it is immunity which is developed by the person own body either in the form of antibodies or memory cells in response to exposure to living or dead microorganisms. While when preformed antibodies are directly inducted into the body to obtain temporary immunity is called passive immunity.

For example:-The yellow fluid colostrol secreted by mother during the initial days of lactation has abundant antibodies to protect the infant.

Examples of antimicrobial resistance

  1. Increase number of cases of the hospital acquired infection
  2. Multidrug resistant tuberculosis

It was launched in India in collaboration with World Health Organisation to directly observed treatment short course for the complete services monitoring diagnosis and provision of the second line anti TB drugs under the supervision of dedicated health circles


Types of Vaccines:-

Conventional Vaccines- These vaccines use live attenuated(Ex SABIN) or killed Pathogen(IPV) in Vaccine

Recombination Vaccines:-They use Antigen,Dna or Part of genetic material of pathogen as vaccine like hepatitis B vaccine.



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