Relief and Structure of Haryana
Physiography of Haryana
- The State of Haryana is situated in the northern part of India and is bounded by Punjab and Himachal Pradesh to the north and by Rajasthan to the west and south.
- The river Yamuna defines its eastern border with Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh.
- Haryana also surrounds Delhi on three sides, forming the northern, western and southern borders of Delhi.
- Haryana is a landlocked state in northern India.
- It is located between 27 degree 37′ to 30 degree 35′ N latitude and between 74 degree 28′ and 77 degree 36′ E longitude.
- The altitude of Haryana varies between 200 m to 1200 m above sea level.
- The total geographical area of the state is 44,212 km2, which is 1.4 % of the geographical area of the country
Physiographic Characteristics of Haryana
- Haryana as a whole is a plain area except some hills of Shivalik system in the northern and Aravalli system in the southern parts of the state.
- For regional divisions, Haryana plain is a part of the great plain namely Indo Gangetic plain which was formed by the deposition of Alluvium brought by the Himalaya & Rivers.
- In this region i.e. Haryana plain three sub divisions have been delineated.
The Eastern Haryana Plain
- The eastern Haryana plain Consisting the districts of Panchkula, Ambala, Yamuna Nagar, Kurukshetra, Kaithal, Karnal, Panipat , Sonipat, Rohtak, Jhajjar & Jind is bordered by low hills of shiwalik system & Himachal Pradesh in the northeast, Punjab in the west, by the Southern Haryana plain in the south by western Haryana plain in the west and by Uttar Pradesh across the Yamuna river and Delhi U.T. in the east.
- Shivalik tract consists of a broad tabled land, which is composed of silt, sand, clay and conglomerates ranging in age from the middle Eocene to lower Pleistocene.
- The slope is generally from north east to south west in which direction most of the rivers flow.
- A large number of rain fed torrents flow down the outer slopes of the Shivalik and spread much gravels and rebbles in their beds of these rivers and streams, the Yamuna, the Ghaggar, the Markanda, the Chautang and the Shivalik are the important ones.
- The region is divided of any perennial eastern part of the region.
- The rivers Ghaggar, Markanda, Saraswati and Yamuna have their flood plains commonly known as khaddar or Bet areas.
- The soils of these flood plains are river borne sand, silt.
The Western Haryana Plain
- The Western Haryana Plain makes its limits with Punjab in north, Rajasthan in the west and southwest, southern Haryana plain in the south and the eastern Haryana plain in the east.
- It covers the districts of Sirsa, Fatehabad, Hisar and Bhiwani.
- The region is different from eastern Haryana plain & southern Haryana plain because of the presence of number of sand dunes of varying heights & magnitudes wind erosion is active and water table in deep.
- The region is also geographically known as “ Bhiwani Bagar ”.
- Only Ghaggar River drains the northern part of the region and its flood plain bifurcate the Sirsa district. The region is important & cotton, grains & oil seeds.
Southern Haryana Plain
- The Southern Haryana Plain comprising the districts of Mahendergarh, Rewari, Gurgaon and Faridabad.
- Delhi is bounded by U.P. in east, by Rajasthan in the south and west and by western Harayana Plain & eastern Harayana Plain in the north.
- It differs from the western Haryana Plain because of the presence of Aravalli off shoots and its slopes towards the north in its western parts and undulating character of the surface.
- The region also has dunes of varying size with Aravalli offshoots in Mahendergarh & Rewari. While in Gurgaon or Faridabad, Aravalli off shoots are responsible for undulation in the region.
- Number of small rainy seasonal rivulets carries the water in Rajasthan in to southern Haryana.
- They represent the inland drainage. In view of the small volume of water carried by them, they lack in potentialities for utilization on an extensive scale. Sahibi valley project over Sahibi River is coming up.
- Here the litho logical diversity in alluvial monotony has a strong bearing upon the distributional pattern of land use, cropping pattern and crop production the undulating sandy plain of the southern Haryana is a scene of dramatic development which will bring prosperity in the region.
Geology of Haryana
- Geology is defined as the study of rocks and minerals of the earth with respect to their origin, composition and mode of occurrence.
- Haryana comprises a variety of rocks belonging to following three different geological domains:
- Pre-Cambrian rocks of Aravali Mountains,
- Tertiary rocks of Himalayas and
- Quaternary deposits of Indo-Gangetic Plains.
- The Quaternary deposits of Indo-Gangetic plains and the Pre-Cambrian rocks of Aravali Mountains dominate the sub-region.
Geology of Panipat District of Haryana
- It is entirely covered by old and new alluvium deposits of quaternary to recent age, which consist of clay and sand.
- Consolidated and un-consolidated sands are also found at places in the district.
Geology of Sonipat District of Haryana
- The district is almost entirely covered by alluvial deposits of clay, loam, silt and sand brought down by river Yamuna.
- High grade silica sand left behind by the change in course of the Yamuna River.
Geology of Rohtak District of Haryana
- District consists of alluvium (recent), loam (Bhangar and Nadrak), coarse loam (daher and chaeknote).
- Infact, the district is a part of indo Gangetic alluvial plain, soil ranging from Pleistocene to recent age
Geology of Jhajjar District of Haryana
- The area forms a part of Dugan ethic plain ranging from Pleistocene to recent in age Aeolian deposits.
- The sediments comprise of clay, sand and Kankar mixed in different proportions.
Geology of Rewari District of Haryana
- The purona rocks in Rewari district belong to Ajabgarh series of Delhi system.
- The hills have been denuded since ages and have a height ranging from 300m to 425m above mean sea level.
- The hills are mostly steep, bare and rocky.
- The previously existing old flood plains have been superimposed by Aeolian plains and sand dunes.
Geology of Gurgaon and Mewat District of Haryana
- Large parts of the district are occupied
- By scattered isolated strike ridges of old rocks, former Aravali mountain chain of Pre-Cambrian and
- Alluvium, sand of recent to sub-recent origin.
Geology of Faridabad and Palwal District of Haryana
- Major parts of the district are occupied by alluvial plains of recent to sub-recent age, which include older (Banger) and newer (Khadar) alluvial and kankar.
- The kankar occurs mainly in the northern part and is poor in calcareous matter
- HPSC Mains Tests and Notes Program
- HPSC Prelims Exam 2020- Test Series and Notes Program
- HPSC Prelims and Mains Tests Series and Notes Program
- HPSC Detailed Complete Prelims Notes