Climate of Haryana
- The climate of the state is subtropical, semi-arid to sub-humid, continental and monsoon type.
- The average rainfall of the state is 560 mm which varies from less than 300 mm in south-western parts to over 1000 mm in the hilly tracks of Shivalik hills.
- The climate of Haryana is very hot in summer and cold in winters.
- The hottest months are May and June and the coldest being December and January.
- Rainfall is varied, with the Shivalik Hills region being the wettest and the Aravali Hills region being the driest.
- About 80% of the rainfall occurs in the monsoon season during the months of July and September.
- Rainfall is varied with Shivalik Hills region being the wettest and the Aravali Hills region being the driest.
- Haryana is very hot in summer and cold in winters.
- The temperature falls to the lowest in January and reaches upto 50 Degree Centigrade during the months of May and June.
- Winter months have average temperatures in the range 3 Degree Centigrade to 9 Degree Centigrade and the summer months temperatures are higher in the range of 48 Degree Centigrade to 35 Degree Centigrade.
- The State has 3 main climate regions. Average annual rainfall and air temperature are given below:-
|REGION||MEAN RAINFALL (MM)||AVG.TEMPERATURE ( C)|
|Hot arid Region||300-500||27|
|Hot Semi Arid Region||500-750||26|
|Hot Sub Humid Region||750-1050||24|
Climate – Current Baseline and Climate Projections of Haryana
- The long term trends in observed seasonal precipitation and temperature over Haryana using IMD gridded rainfall and temperature at daily time scales has been performed to arrive at current baseline climatology for the basin. Summary is presented in the following paragraphs.
- IMD gridded rainfall at 0.5 degree spatial resolution for the time period 1971-2005 (35 years)
- IMD gridded maximum and minimum temperature at 1 degree spatial resolution for the time period 1969-2005 (37 years)
Observed Precipitation trends
- Rainfall in the state of Haryana varies considerably both in space and time from year to year
- The mean south-west monsoon (June, July, August and September) rainfall (447 mm) contributes 82% of annual rainfall (544 mm).
- Mean monthly rainfall during August (163 mm) is highest and contributes about 30% of annual rainfall, followed by July which contributes about 29.5%.
- The mean rainfall during June is slightly lower and contributes about 10% of annual rainfall.
- September rainfall contributes 13 % of annual rainfall.
- Contribution of pre-monsoon (March, April and May) rainfall and post-monsoon (October, November and December) rainfall in annual rainfall is 8% and 5.8% respectively. Inter annual variation in rainfall is very marginal
- Average number of rainy days in Haryana during the south west monsoon is about 25 days and varies spatially from 14 days to 40 days.
- Days when there is high rainfall events range from 1 to 3 days and similarly the extreme rainfall days are less and is about 1 day.
- Average number of rainy days in Haryana during the post monsoon (winter) is about 2 days and varies from 1 days to 3 days.
- Days when there are high and extreme rainfall events are negligible
Observed Temperature trends
- The state of Haryana shows a spatial as well as temporal variability
- Diurnal temperature varies from 31.4 Degree Centigrade to 17.4 Degree Centigrade
- There is no significant trend in the mean maximum temperature, minimum temperature shows an increase of about 1.0 Degree Centigrade to 1.2 Degree Centigrade in 37 years.
- Districts of Fatehabad, Jhajjar and Karnal show higher increase in the minimum temperature (1.1 Degree Centigrade to 1.3 Degree Centigrade).
- Inter annual variation is not significant. Spatial variation in annual maximum and minimum temperature found to be around 2 Degree Centigrade seasonal average maximum temperature is higher during pre monsoon and monsoon season and ranges between 35.4 Degree Centigrade to 36.2 Degree Centigrade.
- Similarly seasonal average minimum temperature is lowest during winter period and ranges from 6.9 Degree Centigrade to 7.6 Degree Centigrade.
Climate Change aspect of Haryana
- Climate Change has emerged as one of the most serious environmental and socio-economic concerns of our times.
- It is a global phenomenon with diverse local impacts likely to alter the distribution and quality of our natural resources and adversely affect the livelihood of the people specially the poor and marginalized communities.
- In 1992, India adopted the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, global initiative to combat climate change.
- Article 3 of the UNFCCC states that “parties should protect the climate system for the benefit of future and present generations of human kind on the basis of equity and in accordance with their common but differentiated responsibility and respective capabilities.”
- A latecomer into the nation’s development process and with a per capita Green House Gas emission barely a fraction of the national average and the magnitude much below that of other industralised states of the country, the state’s economy is closely linked to its natural resource base and climate-sensitive sectors such as agriculture and forestry.
- Hence, the state faces an increased risk of the negative impacts of climate change.
- The state would therefore adopt a climate friendly, equity based and sustainable developmental path taking into account our “common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities”, and our regional development priorities, objectives and circumstances.
- A State Action Plan on Climate Change would be prepared within the ambit of the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) albeit with modifications that suits the specific requirements of the state.
- A climate change cell should be set up to coordinate the gathering of information, conduct research and offer solutions to the problems with regard to food security, change in rainfall patterns etc.
- Climate change initiatives to be started with the cooperation of the civil society at large to achieve:
- Energy efficiency.
- Harness renewable energy sources.
- Adaptive management in agriculture.
- Promote climate friendly technologies.
- Launch campaign on 3Rs-recycle, reduce, reuse
Agro-climatic zone of Haryana
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