LAKE ECOLOGY

  Any – body of standing water, generally large enough in area and depth, irrespective of its hydrology, ecology, and other characteristics is generally known as lake. Ageing of Lakes The nutrient enrichment of the lakes promotes the growth of algae, aquatic plants and various fauna. This process is known as natural eutrophication. Similar nutrient … Read more

AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM

  Fresh water ecosystems- The salt content of fresh bodies is very low, always less than 5 ppt  (parts per thousand). E.g lakes, ponds, pools, springs, streams, and rivers Marine ecosystems – the water bodies containing salt concentration equal to or above that of sea water (i.e., 35 ppt or above). E.g shallow seas and … Read more

India’s action against Desertification

India as a signatory to United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) has submitted four National Reports to UNCCD  in the years 2000, 2002, 2006 and 2010 Some of the major programmes currently implemented that address issues related to land degradation and desertification is:- Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP), National Afforestation Programme (NAP), National Mission for … Read more

Cold Desert/ Temperate Desert

  Cold desert of India include areas of ladak, leh and kargil of kashmir and spiti valley of Himachal  Pradesh and some parts of northern Uttaranchal and Sikkim. Lies in rain shadow of Himalaya Oak, pine, deodar, birch and rhododendron are the important trees and bushes found there. Major  animal include yaks, dwarf cows, and … Read more

Hot DESERT ECOSYSTEM  

Deserts are formed in regions with less than 25 cm of annual rainfall, .or sometimes in hot regions where there is more rainfall, but unevenly distributed in the annual cycle. Lack’ of rain in the mid latitude is often due to stable high pressure zones; deserts in temperate regions often lie in “rain shadows”, that … Read more

GRASSLAND ECOSYTEM

  found where rainfall is about 25-75 cm per year, not enough to support a forest, but more than that of a true desert. vegetation formations that are generally found in temperate climates. In India, they are found mainly in the high Himalayas. The rest of India’s grasslands are mainly composed of steppes and savannas. … Read more

INDIAN FOREST TYPES

  Forest types in India are classified by Champion and Seth into sixteen types.   Tropical Wet evergreen forests are found along the Western Ghats, the Nicobar and Andaman Islands and all  along the north-eastern region. It is characterized by tall, straight evergreen trees. The trees in this forest form a tier pattern: Beautiful fern … Read more

FOREST ECOSYSTEM

Forest ecosystem includes a complex assemblage of different kinds of biotic communities. Optimum conditions such as temperature and ground moisture are responsible for the establishment of forest communities. Forests may be evergreen or deciduous which are distinguished on the basis of leaf into broad-leafed or needle leafed coniferous forests in the case of temperate areas. … Read more

SUCCESSION

  a universal process of directional change in vegetation, on an ecological time scale. occurs when a series of communities replace one another due to large scale destruction either natural or manmade. continously -one community replacing another community, until a stable, mature community develops. The first plant to colonise an area is called the pioneer … Read more

 BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLE

The elements or mineral nutrients are always in circulation moving from non-living to living and then back to the non-living components of the ecosystem in a more or less circular fashion. This circular fashion is known as biogeochemical cycling (bio for living; geo for atmosphere). Nutrient Cycling: The nutrient cycle is a concept that describes … Read more

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